Section 1: Matter Exists in Space and Time About Newton's Mechanics and Calculus ~ 1687 Section Advance:     2   3   4   5
 1.00   Matter Exists in Space and Time Excerpt 1 Physics is learned from educators, books which describe physical reality and simple experiments. A scientific language is developed. Matter, space and time are beginning ideas. 1.01   A Basic Methodology 2 ♦   Prove: (A - B)² = A² - 2AB + B² Excerpt 3 Physics uses algebra and algebra uses geometry. As a "refresher" exercise prove: (A - B)² = A² - 2AB + B². ♦   Theorem of Pythagoras 4 ♦   Eratosthanes' Experiment 5 ♦   Drilling Rig Visibility 6 ♦   Prove: ( -1 ) x ( -1 ) = 1 7 1.02   Position: the First Vector 8 ♦   Pharaoh's Engineers Excerpt 9 The Great Pyramid of Egypt was constructed to precise proportions. A hypothesis is that the pyramid was constructed to fit inside an imaginary hemisphere with each of its corners and its peak touching the hemisphere. Suppose the hypothesis were true. Calculate the resulting angle each face would make with the horizontal plane of the desert. ♦  Extra Title I ♦  Extra Title II ♦   Vectors Contain Trigonometry 10 ♦   Crank, Rod and Piston Excerpt 11 The connected mechanical parts whereby explosive combustion becomes power of a rotating shaft are called "power trains." The simplest arrangement, crank-rod-piston, shown. Engine designers must know precisely the position and speed of the piston face for every position of the crank. The math tool, vectors, makes such tasks logically systematic. ♦   Ladder-Boom Rescue 12 ♦   Dog and Pony Show 13 1.03   Basic Terms and Tools 14 1.04   Models of Reality 15 1.05   Velocity: Our First Derivative 16 1.06   Mass Equation: BODY 17 1.07   Momentum: BODY 18 1.08   Derivative of Momentum: BODY 19 1.09   About:  f = ma   UNDER REVISION 20 1.10   Uniform Motion 21 1.11   Constant Momentum Motion 22 ♦   Valentino's Wake 23 ♦   Dog Greets Owners Excerpt 24 When detail is unavailable, approximation is required. "A dog runs back and forth between its two owners, who are walking toward one another... What distance will the dog have traveled when the three meet?" ♦   Least Distance 1 25 ♦   Least Distance 2 26 ♦   Yacht and Sea Buoy 27 ♦   Scissor Jack 28 ♦   Train Passes Two Boys Excerpt 29 Two boys, walking beside railroad tracks heard a train approaching from behind. The older boy knew the city train speeds limit was 30 mph. He and his buddy walked about 3 feet per second. When the nose of the engine was abreast of them, the smaller boy began to count. The count, the instant the caboose passed, was, "... 34 seconds." A moment later, the older boy said, "... only about 1400 feet long." ♦   Civil War Memorial 30 1.12   Steps to Integrate 31 1.13   Measurement of μMEarth 32 1.14   Weight and Weighing 33 ♦   Hand Supports a Mass 34 ♦   Lunar "Carry-Off" Luggage 35 ♦   Ten Pounds of Potatoes 36 1.15   Vectors: BODY 37 1.16   Notations: Position and Velocity 38 1.17   Value, Slope and Curvature 39 1.18   Differentiation: Time-Dependent Integral 40 ♦   Blue Ocean Towing Excerpt 41 In the Davis Strait, a massive ice slab has cleaved from the ice-shelf and is drifting toward an oil rig. Our largest tug, (pulling constantly at 90° to the current), will drag the slab off-course so it passes abreast of the oil rig, at a distance no closer than 4000 meters. Calculate the towing force required of the tug to accomplish the task. 1.19   Gravity at Altitudes 42 ♦   Projectile Arcs 43 1.20   Events in Time 44 ♦   Galileo's Inclined Plane 45 ♦   Acceleration Initial Condition 46 1.21   Omitted Forces 47 ♦   Parachutists Drag Force 48 ♦   God Lifted Earth I 49 ♦   God Lifted Earth II 50 ♦   Point Blank 51 ♦   Shot Tower 52 1.22   Momentum Equation: BODY 53 1.23   Mom Eqn Component Form: BODY 54 ♦   Geostationary Orbits 55 1.24   Vector Basis: Circular Motion 56 ♦   Polar versus Equatorial Weight 57 ♦   Lift-Off Acceleration 58 1.25   Method, System and Numbers 59 1.26   Newton's Analytic Method 60 ♦   Sled Mass 61 ♦   Kinematics of Bar AB 62 ♦   Quick Return Mechanism 63

 Section 2: Ideal Fluids About Fluids, Pressure and Hydrostatics Section Advance:  1      3   4   5
 2.00   Ideal Fluid 64 2.01   Mass, Volume and Density 65 ♦   LNG Tanker 66 ♦   Sphere, Tank, and Water 67 ♦   Torricelli's Barometer 68 2.02   Standard Atmosphere 69 2.03   Hydrostatic Equation 70 2.04   Hydrostatic Solutions 71 ♦   Pascal's Experiment 72 ♦   Density of Fluid "A" 73 ♦   Air, Oil, Cable Support Rod 74 ♦   Water Barometer 75 ♦   Piezometer 76 ♦   Manometer and Bourdon Gages 77 2.05   Classical Piston and Cylinder Excerpt 78 The idealization "ideal piston/cylinder apparatus" (is friction free and does not leak.) is useful. 2.06   Pressure in a Jet 79 2.07   Pressure Terminology 80 ♦   Pressure Calculations 81 ♦   Pressure of the Void 82 ♦   Cave Diver 83 ♦   Hurricane Wilma 84 ♦   Wilma's Surge 85 ♦   Off-Shore Natural Gas 86 ♦   U-tube 87 ♦   Bubble-Tube Depth Gage 88 ♦   Monster Tires 89 ♦   Floating Buoyancy 90 ♦   Volume of a Sculpture 91 ♦   Arctic Shelf Ice 92 2.08   Ideal Gas and its Temperature 93 ♦   Using the Ideal Gas Equation 94 ♦   Majic Fountain 95 ♦   Casting Rail Wheels 96 ♦   Professor Foghorn's Gage 97 ♦   Abandoned Car 98 ♦   First Equestrian Ascent 99 ♦   Otto Von Guericke 100 ♦   Victor Regnault 101 ♦   Roof-Top Exit 102 ♦   Two Tanks 103 ♦   Ocean of Air 104 ♦   Hand Lotion Event 105 2.09   Gas Equation Validity 106 ♦   Fuel Cell Mass Proportions 107 ♦   Nuclear Waste 108 ♦   Concrete Mixture 109

 Section 3: Energy, Work, and Heat Extension of Newton's Ideas: Energy, Work and Heat Section Advance:  1   2      4   5
 3.00   Engineering Thermodynamics 110 3.01   Work: BODY 111 3.02   Mechanical Energy Equation 112 ♦   Bilge Pump Work 113 ♦   Buoy Lift I 114 ♦   Buoy Lift II 115 ♦   Champagne Cork Velocity 116 ♦   Slap Shot 117 ♦   Kids Clean the Garage 118 ♦   Tank with a Movable Wall 119 ♦   Harpy's Nest 120 3.03   Work Considerations 121 ♦   Back Squat 122 ♦   Rock Climb 123 ♦   Work to Draw the Castle Bridge 124 ♦   Elephant Weighs Teak 125 ♦   Polaris Scale Model 126 ♦   Choice of Worker: "A" or "B" ? 127 ♦   Pushing a Crate Uphill 128 ♦   Boy in a Wheelchair 129 ♦   Egg-Drop Challenge 130 ♦   Planet Gizmo 131 3.04   Work as "on" or "by" 132 ♦   Optimized Work 133 ♦   Drunk Driving Awareness Excerpt 134 ♦   Wreck at Batavia 135 ♦   Rock Falls onto a Spring 136 3.05   System: Selection and Isolation 137 3.06   Forklift Events 138 3.07   Energy Equation: BODY 139 3.08   Internal Energy 140 3.09   Compression Work 141 3.10   Energy: SUBSTANCE 142 ♦   Batch Mix Event 143 3.11   Constant Pressure Events: IG 144 3.12   Frictionless Adiabatic Process: IG 145 3.13   About Enthalpy 146 3.14   Constant Volume IG 147 3.15   About Entropy 148 ♦   Blowgun Hunter 149 ♦   Skateboard Skill 150 ♦   Newman's Annihilator 151 ♦   Kids on a Swing 152 ♦   SCUBA Horsepower 153 ♦   What is cos(θ + 60°)? 154 3.16   About Heat 155 ♦   Hot, Heat, Cold... etc 156 3.17   Heat and Work Sign Conventions 157 3.18   Energy Equation I: SUBSTANCE 158 3.19   Energy Equation II: SUBSTANCE 159 3.20   Polytropic Processes: IG 160 3.21   Events of Ideal Gases 161 3.22   Rotational Kinetic Energy 162 ♦   Air Pistol 163 ♦   Air/Water Mortar 164 ♦   Linear Elastic Work 165 ♦   Tank, Spring and Heater 166 ♦   Candle Beneath a Piston 167 ♦   Average Force to Brake 168 3.23   Mean Value Theorem 169 ♦   Vacuum Launched Rocket 170 ♦   Hot Shot 171 3.24   Simple Springs 172 ♦   Bungee Jumper Excerpt 173 Design and setup of bungee jumping ropes is a "life or death" matter. Done wrong, we read about it in the newspapers. The rail of the New River Gorge Bridge passes 785 feet above the surface of the slow, trickling stream, the New River. Our jumper, a 120 pound "living-dangerous" lady, wants ropes set so at the bottom of her jump she can grab a fist of water from the river. ♦   Box moves between Two Springs 174 ♦   Washer Switch 175 3.25   Complex Substances 176 3.26   Energy Rates and Power 177 ♦   Elevator Speed 178 ♦   Gravity Work-Rate 179 3.27   Shaft Work 180 ♦   Ship's Reduction Gear 181 ♦   Horsepower of an Ox 182 ♦   Truck Least Horsepower 183 ♦   Tank Locomotion   UNDER REVISION 184 ♦   Cyclist Power   UNDER REVISION 185 ♦   Car Drives Uphill 186 ♦   18-Wheeler Safe Braking Speed 187 ♦   Atwood's Machine 188 ♦   Deadweight Compactors 189 ♦   Pulling Sheet Piles 190

 Section 4: Thermodynamic Properties Matter is Made Quantitative by its Properties Section Advance:  1   2   3     5
 4.00   Thermodynamic Properties 191 4.01   Phases at 1 Atmosphere 192 4.02   Normal Properties of Water 193 4.03   Energy Equation: Constant Pressure 194 ♦   Chef Thickens the Soup 195 ♦   When will the Teapot Whistle? 196 ♦   Water at One Atmosphere 197 ♦   Citrus Concentrate 198 ♦   Microwave Coffee 199 ♦   Grease Fire Experiment 200 4.04   Steam Tables 201 ♦   Yardley's Extractor 202 ♦   Stone Boiling 203 ♦   Atmospheric Engine 204 ♦   Pressure Cooker 205 ♦   Emergency Power MS 206 ♦   Neon Signage 207 ♦   Leaded Pipe Joint 208 ♦   Specific Heat Calculation 209 ♦   Space Shuttle Re-entry 210 ♦   Copper Block Slides on Ice 211 ♦   Sausage Preparation 212 ♦   Ice versus Dry Ice Comparison 213 ♦   1861 - Rifle Musket 214 ♦   Laser Retina Surgery 215

 Section 5: Thermodynamic Analysis Analysis Explains or Predicts Simple Events Section Advance:  1   2   3   4
 5.00   Thermodynamic Analysis 216 5.01   Mass Equation 217 ♦   Trans Alaska Pipeline 218 5.02   System Perspectives 219 ♦   Dig Suez 220 ♦   Linear Valve 221 5.03   Leibnitz's Calculus 222 5.04   Linear Mass Equation 223 ♦   Pipe Pig 224 ♦   Boost Pump 225 ♦   Freeze-Dried Rattlesnakes 226 ♦   Civil Rights Memorial 227 ♦   Flow Through an Expansion 228 ♦   Depth of Wine 229 ♦   Extruded Rod 230 5.05   Momentum Equation 231 ♦   Reaction of a Jet 232 ♦   Jet-Ski - Static Pull 233 ♦   Time to Refill the Pool 234 ♦   Pitot-Static Gage 235 ♦   Where Water Jets Collide 236 ♦   P-51 Mustang 237 5.06   Energy Equation 238 ♦   Water Seeks its Level 239 ♦   Gear Pump 240 ♦   Aquarium Turbines 241 ♦   Not a "COOL IDEA" 242 ♦   Shipping Maeku 243 ♦   Instant Hot Water 244 ♦   Pipe Line Flow 245 ♦   Torricelli's Theorem 246 ♦   Scraped-Surface Heat Exchanger 247 ♦   Cardiac Horsepower 248 ♦   Heat Powered Elevator 249 ♦   Niagara Falls Power 250 ♦   Tomato Juice 251 ♦   ZULIA - Side Casting Dredge 252 ♦   Water Pumped Vertically 253 ♦   Light Bulb Efficiency 254 ♦   Ideal Gas Elevator 255